If you get this homework to me on time, I will return the graded copies during lab on Wednesday March 1. That way you may have it before the exam on March 2nd. Answer the following questions.
The following entry presents criticism on Armstrong's young adult novel Sounder through For further information on his life and works, see CLR, Volume 1. The story reflects Armstrong's personal history, his knowledge of southern rural life, and his admiration for strong-willed individuals.
Narrated from the innocent perspective of the family's unnamed young son, the text provides graphic descriptions of the cruelties inflicted upon sharecroppers of the era trapped by poverty and lack of education.
Patterned after a story told to Armstrong by an older school-teacher, the novel is concerned, in part, with the family's loyal coon dog named Sounder—named for his resonant howl that reverberates across the country-side—whose fate in many ways parallels the life of the narrator's unjustly treated father.
While a mainstay in elementary school libraries, Sounder has attracted recent critical debate surrounding Armstrong's ability as a white writer to accurately portray the lives and voices of black characters.
He was raised on his devoutly Scottish Presbyterian family's farm and attended lo-cal elementary schools, where he evinced an early talent for reading and writing. Armstrong attended Augusta Military Academy, a private military high school, from to According to his family, Armstrong wrote his first story as a cadet at Augusta, but the story was so good that his teachers falsely accused him of plagiarism.
Later, the story was write a short article on oceanography in the literary magazine at Hampden-Sydney College, where Armstrong edited both the magazine and the college newspaper.
He graduated from Hampden-Sydney with honors in history in and went on to study history further at the University of Virginia.
Armstrong married Martha Stonestreet Williams inwith whom he had three children. Three years later, he became a history teacher at Kent School, a private school in Kent, Connecticut.
In his wife died, and Armstrong raised his children as a single parent. During the s and s, Armstrong focused on writing history books and study skills guides rather than fiction.
He wrote his fictional masterpiece, Sounder, inin the midst of the growing civil rights movement. In the early s, Armstrong wrote two books that echoed the characters and plot of Sounder—Sour Land and The Mills of God —though neither achieved the critical or popular success of Sounder.
Over the next twenty-five years, Armstrong continued to live and work in Kent, penning a series of historical biographies, study aides, and additional works of young adult fiction, many with overt religious themes. He died on April 11,at the age of eighty-four. Unnamed by Armstrong—the intent of which remains a point of ongoing contention among his critics—the family ekes out a hard-scrabble living as sustenance farmers who are forced to survive winters selling raccoon and possum pelts and walnut kernels.
A young boy, the eldest of the family's four children, narrates his family's difficulties, which grow particularly harsh after his father is beaten and arrested by unsympathetic sheriffs for the theft of some hams meant to feed his starving children. Sounder, gravely injured, crawls under the house where the family believes he intends to die.
When the boy looks for him several days later, the dog has disappeared into the woods to recover. After the father's incarceration on a chain gang, the lives of the sharecroppers grow immeasurably worse.
In the father's absence, the mother is forced to take a job doing laundry for the nearby white families. However, a few weeks after the violent arrest, Sounder astonishes the family by returning to their home, though his spirit and body have been severely damaged.
Whereas before, his bark could be heard for miles, now the dog no longer barks without the presence of his beloved master. Meanwhile, the boy—already limited in his prospects due to his inability to read and write—takes his father's place in the fields, but continually searches for his missing father after harvest every season.
This becomes a pattern in the boy's life until, as a teenager, he meets a schoolmaster who agrees to teach him in exchange for doing chores. The boy later passes his new knowledge onto his siblings. Despite all of their hardships, the boy's mother continues to teach her children perseverance and acceptance, advising her son: The Lord teaches the old to lose.
The young don't know how to learn it. With half his body paralyzed and completely broken in spirit, the father dies soon after his return, quickly followed by Sounder.
After both deaths, the now-educated boy quotes Montaigne, his teacher's favorite author, to sum up his feelings: The vagueness of the world outside the sharecropper's cabin reflects the limited vision and knowledge of the novel's illiterate protagonist.
Armstrong employs a third-person limited omniscient point of view that emphasizes how the narrator thinks and reacts to events.
As a result, the psychological realism of the boy's consciousness and innocence form the lens through which the readers view his world.
Armstrong utilizes the young boy and his family in Sounder to dramatize the evils of racism and poverty. Notions of social injustice and unnecessary cruelty are developed through the author's precise and realistic descriptions of the father's arrest, the boy's visit with his father in jail, and the father's crippling.
The boy's courage in confronting racism, his endurance in the face of opposition, his unselfish love for his family, and his hunger for learning are traits that Armstrong promotes as necessary for the survival of humankind.
The boy learns to read in order to help himself overcome his loneliness and to break the chains of ignorance that imprison his family.Identifying Topics, Main Ideas, and Supporting Details Understanding the topic, the gist, or the larger conceptual framework of a textbook chapter, an article, a paragraph, a sentence or a passage is a sophisticated reading task.
The Oceanography Department Paper Guidelines have been adapted from the "Suggestions to Authors" of the U.S. Geological Survey. For information beyond what is . Oceanography Environmental Oceanography.
This link will take to an article on "How to Write Like a Scientist" published by the journal Science. Scientific writing: A very short cheat sheet. Here is a link to a concise article on scientific writing published by the journal Nature-Nature Jobs Blog.
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