A history of the term "Islamophobia," where it came from, why it is used, and how it is used. A discussion of racism in the context of Islamic and Muslim people.
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In the last decades, Europe and North America have had controversial relationships with Islam and Muslims. Although it is not new for different religious groups living within a single society to have ideological and normative tensions, the current phenomenon of Islamophobia could be considered a process of religious discrimination toward Islam and contradicts the basic norms and values Research paper islamophobia are promoted by the Western liberal democracies.
While the negative stereotypes toward Muslim culture, religion, and Arab ethnicity have been present in the Western society for a long time, it is only in the recent decades that these attitudes have become an institutionalized discriminative phenomenon.
With the opening of European borders, migration from the Arab countries to the West and the September terrorist attack, Western societies have gained fixed intolerance and fear toward Islam.
Despite such differences in interpretation, there are some common characteristics that can express the discriminative Islamophobic attitudes. Islamophobia includes perceiving Islam as the inferior culture compared to the Western, as a violent, aggressive, radical, and totalitarian worldview that cannot be assimilated to the Western secular culture and coexist peacefully and comfortably to one another Taras, Raymond In fact, these fears are highly exaggerated, as an insignificantly small percentage of violent crimes in the US is committed by Muslims, with the great majority of violence being produced by the carriers of Western values Gallup, Inc.
Such issue leads to a further question of whether Islamophobia can be considered as religious discrimination or as a justiciable reaction of liberal society to the cultural and religious threat from the stranger Islamic worldview.
Islamophobia as religious discrimination The issue of conceptualizing Islamophobia as solely a process of religious discrimination lies mainly in the unique evolution of the relationships between Muslim minorities in the Western countries.
While originally the term religious discrimination referred to limitations and discrimination of a specific religious group in its right of peacefully practicing of beliefs and doctrines and fulfilling its religious life, the modern Islamophobia is a more complex phenomenon.
On the one hand, most of the Muslim communities in the West feel free to perform their religious rituals, establish their churches and visit them.
Thus, there is no direct deprivation of Islam as a religious system toward Muslims. On the other hand, many of the Islamic traditions and cultural norms have a controversial position in the ideological discourse of secular Western democracies. Despite the fact that Western communities are less religious, the impact of Christian domination could be seen in political, judicial, and cultural realms, making it hard for Muslim minorities find common ground with the West Weller, Paul At the same time, Western cultures also turned out to be poorly fit for the presence of monolithic Islam minorities, which, unlike many other ethnic and religious minorities, try to keep their religious and cultural identities and refuse to assimilate fully with the Western majority.
Such tendencies have led to the emergence of direct legislation which limited the freedoms of religious expression. These include laws in France, which banned burqas — traditional Muslim headwear for women — from the public spaces Weaver, Matthew.
The idea that elements of traditional clothing can carry extremism of dangerous fundamentalism has no logic and rational explanation. The only arguments from the supporters of this ban are based on the idea that burqas discriminate women in their freedom of choosing what to do with their bodies.
However, a more constructive explanation might lie in the irrational fear and rejection toward the Muslim culture, which is expressed through such confusing and controversial legislation.
It seems that the irrationality of fear and aggressive attitudes that is expressed through the burqa ban are a simple, yet very illustrative example of why Islamophobia should be considered as religious discrimination. Although this modern type of discrimination does not include a direct limitation of Muslim religious rights, meaning that Muslims are not banned from going to mosques or worshiping Allah, it is concentrated on cultural and ideological elements that Islam carries and limits them, justifying this discrimination with liberal values.
Although modern European and American societies tend to be more secular than the Muslim states, the Western liberal ideology was built upon Christian traditions and used social, political, and cultural institutions that were tightly connected to the Christian way of life. The above structural discriminative actions lead to the assumption that Islamophobia is not only a phenomenon of religious discrimination, it also has racist features.
However, there is also a contrasting view that envisions Muslim culture as unfit to coexist with the Western values. From that perspective, Muslim migrants to the West are cultural intruders who refuse to accept the Western set of values and fail to exist within the democratic and liberal world.
Thus, to keep the Western society within the liberal direction of development, political and judicial instruments are used to limit the influence of Muslim minorities in their public lives.
Therefore, the Islamic minorities have a choice of whether to accept the Western lifestyle and values or to come back to the states where Islam is the normative and moral fundamental of the social and political structure.Download "Justification of Islamophobia" Research Paper ( Words)!
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