All dates are AD or CE current era unless otherwise specified. Some dates are approximations or "educated guesses. You can click any hyperlinked poem title or writer name to "drill down. If you're a student who "doesn't like poetry" and is only here grudgingly because of a school assignment, please reconsider.
The era of confessional conflict and war had come to an end inbut urban culture continued to decline, and the empire became a country of innumerable courts. Dependent mostly upon princely patronage, cultural life became decentralized and very provincial.
Enlightenment optimism envisioned progress as attainable through education and science. To Leibniz this was the best of all possible worlds. He constructed a model for the universe as an absolutist state with God as the monarch, or central monad, which all other monads, including man, reflect and strive to emulate.
This metaphysical model of the universe influenced European writers from Voltaire who satirized Leibniz in Candide to Goethe, who as late as represented the protagonist of Faust as a monad seeking salvation.
During the period of economic decline in the second half of the 17th century, the German courts and the educated class had sought to profit from the progressive developments in France by adopting not only the standards of French civilization but also its language.
Leibniz wrote most of his essays in French or in Latin, which was the language of university scholarship. Those who wrote in German needed to free themselves from charges of provinciality and from foreign dominance.
Considering popular German culture plebeian and vulgar, the aristocracy read only French literature and listened to Italian opera.
By the s the effort to demonstrate that German was capable of literary expression led to a search for roots in national history and a discovery of an indigenous German tradition in folk songs and ballads. These enterprises would serve as models for a national literature.
Early Enlightenment The first literary reforms in Germany between andhowever, were based on French 17th-century Classicism. He also initiated a reform of the German theatre aimed on the one hand against the Baroque extravagance of the aristocratic theatre and on the other against the vulgarity of popular theatre.
In addition, Gottsched edited some of the first German moral weeklies so called because they were published for the moral edification of the middle classwhich were patterned after English models such as The Spectator and The Tatler.
He functioned, instead, as the barrier to be overcome. Opposition arose on various fronts. It created a sensation inmore by its poetic language and bold images than by its theme. I am this Nobody! Interestingly enough, he urged the story of Faust on his contemporaries as a subject particularly appropriate to the German stage.
Lessing reinterpreted Aristotle in his Hamburgische Dramaturgie —69; Hamburg Dramaturgyasserting that the cathartic emotions of pity and fear are felt by the audience rather than by figures in the drama. With this stress on pity and on compassion, Lessing interpreted Aristotle in terms of Christian middle-class virtues and established Shakespeare as the model for German dramatists to follow.
His final, blank-verse drama, Nathan der Weise ; Nathan the Wiseis representative of the Enlightenment. Set in 12th-century Jerusalem during the Crusades, the play deals with religious tolerance. The dramatic conflicts are oriented to the conflicts of the three religions involved—Judaism, Christianity, and Islam—and coalesce in the love of a Knight Templar for the daughter of Nathan, the wise Jew who embodies the ideal of humanity.
At the core of the play is the parable of the ring that Nathan offers as an answer to the question of which of the three religions is the true one. A father has one precious ring but three sons whom he loves equally. The brothers are advised to prove through their actions which of the three received the original ring.
The parable implies that Christians, Jews, and Muslims are involved like the three brothers in a competition to prove by ethical conduct—rather than by prejudicewarfare, and bickering over dogma—the truth of their respective religions.
With this play Lessing was far ahead of his time, not only in terms of religious tolerance but also in his dramatic subversion of one of the stereotypes of European religious anti-Semitism: Nathan der Weise shows that Lessing was involved in one of the central theological debates about religious revelation in 18th-century Germany, a debate in which he yielded neither to orthodoxy nor to superficial rationalism.
He never expected the play to be staged.
"Superbly compiled, edited, and annotated by Jonathan Cohen, and with a stimulating preface by Julio Marzán, the bilingual anthology By Word of Mouth is the most important addition to the Williams canon since Christopher MacGowan's edition of Paterson .. Ethnography (from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people, nation" and γράφω grapho "I write") is the systematic study of people and cultures. It is designed to explore cultural phenomena where the researcher observes society from the point of view of the subject of the study. An ethnography is a means to represent graphically and in writing the culture of a group. Dec 03, · Confessional Themes. Posted on December 3, Valparaiso Poetry Review: Contemporary Poetry and Poetics. VPR, n.d. Web. 5 October. Flint, Roland. “A Way of Knowing.” This is a collaborative study about the confessional poetry movement. Browse Research.
Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock and Christoph Martin Wieland Although known mainly as the author of the epic Der Messias, Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock was in fact the major poet of the German Enlightenment, liberating lyric poetry from the standing rules and stressing innovative language, images, and metres.
Although this nationalism cannot be compared to that of the 19th and 20th centuries, it showed the central role of literature in the formation of German national consciousness.
Christoph Martin Wieland was the foremost novelist of the German Enlightenment. The hero of each is a visionary dreamer who, after many failures and erotic temptations, eventually adopts an enlightened outlook on life.
Johann Gottfried von Herder The temper of the time demanded a concept of German national identity liberated from the tyranny of Rome and Paris, and it demanded a literature that would express this new national self-awareness.
Johann Gottfried von Herderwho had abandoned a comfortable position as pastor in provincial Riga then part of the Russian Empire on the Baltic Sea in order to pursue philosophical interests, was a central figure in this movement. He was a transitional figure, belonging to the Enlightenment as well as to the Sturm und Drang movement.
His Journal meiner Reise im Jahr Journal of My Travels in the Year is a diary of his ocean journey from Riga to Nantes, France, and at the same time an allegory of a progress away from unthinking German provincialism to the kind of strongly individualistic rebellion that was to set the tone for his generation of German intellectuals and poets.
This mission is especially critical for peoples who have forgotten or abandoned or not yet found their own identities, and the latter certainly applied to the Germans in the midth century, when a German nation-state did not exist. It was precisely popular oral poetry Volksdichtung that contained and defined the Volksseele.Ethnography (from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people, nation" and γράφω grapho "I write") is the systematic study of people and cultures.
It is designed to explore cultural phenomena where the researcher observes society from the point of view of the subject of the study. An ethnography is a means to represent graphically and in writing the culture of a group. Cathryn Meyer, a graduate student at the University of Texas in Austin and this year's Helen Ann Mins Robbins Fellow, will present a lecture on "Confessional Poetics of the Body in Late Medieval Literature," at 3 p.m.
Thursday, April 7, in the Robbins Library, Rush Rhees Library, on the University of Rochester's River Campus. JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources.
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Confessional poetry changed everything regarding what a poem could be written about. In this lesson, we'll study Sylvia Plath, a pioneer of the form. The Personal is Political: A Comparative Study of Contemporary Chinese and American Confessional Poetry Xiaohong Zhang; Comparative Literature Studies.